Sunday, December 8, 2019

Level 3 Health Social Care Diploma(Adults) free essay sample

SHC 31 Promote communicate in a health and Social care setting 1. 1. Identify the different reasons why people communicate? The reasons for People communicating are as follows: †¢to express needs and wishes †¢to share ideas and information †¢to reassure †¢to express feelings and/or concerns †¢to build relationships and socialise †¢to ask questions †¢to share experiences 1. 2. Explain how communication affects relationships in the work setting. 2. 1. Demonstrate how to establish the communication and language needs, wishes and preferences of individuals. . 2. Describe the factors to consider when promoting effective communication. Factors to consider when communicating could be: †¢Is the environment adequate for the communication( well lit, quiet, confidential etc. ) †¢the person have the abilities to understand (dementia, mental health, learning disability) †¢adapting your communication for the individual (speak louder, use hand gestu res etc. ) †¢Does the person need an interpreter or family member to be present †¢How is the person going to respond to the communication Are you invading the individuals personal space †¢Do you need to write down questions, for the individual to understand better †¢Are you sure of the facts, that you are communicating Example of â€Å"communication methods I use with a client†. We will write a custom essay sample on Level 3 Health Social Care Diploma(Adults) or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Describe an individual you currently work with: How long have you known them? Describe the problems they have with communication How did you find out about this person’s ability to communicate? I find out communication needs by: Describe how you do the following? ActionAn example of how I did this Action An example of how I did this 2. . Demonstrate a range of communication methods and styles to meet individual needs. 2. 4. Demonstrate how to respond to an individual’s reaction when communicating. Give an example of â€Å"communication methods you used with a client†. Describe an individual you currently work with: I work with a 50 year old man who suffers from. How long have you known them? Describe the problems he/ she have with communication How did you find out about this person’s ability to communicate? I find out about the individual communication needs by: By reading their referral notes, care plans.. Describe how you do the following? ActionAn example of how I did this How do you show this person that you are listening to them, and ensure their communication needs are met? ActionAn example of how I did this Describe your body language when communicating with themConsider space, facial expression (smile), listening skills, etc.. Ask advice on communicationConsider changes in the person’s communication needs. what did you do (record and report to who) Adapting Communications Skills There are times when we need to adapt our communication style to meeting the needs of individuals and use aids to help them enhance their communication. Explain how you would adapt and support the following persons to communicate: A service user with: Hearing Loss Loss of sight Learning difficulties and language barriers Gender differences Dementia / confusion Dysphasic Cultural differences Communication and Autism 3. 1. Explain how people from different backgrounds may use and/ or interpret communication methods in different ways. . 2. Identify barriers to effective communication 3. 3. Demonstrate ways to overcome barriers to communication BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION HOW TO OVERCOME Medical condition Their understanding/language differences Visual/hearing impairment Relationship 3. 4. Describe strategies that can be used to clarify misunderstanding. 3. 5. Explain how to access extra support or services to enable individuals to communicate effectively. 4 . 1. Explain the meaning of the term confidentiality. Note: Please define confidentiality as stated in Data Protection Act 1998 4. 2. Demonstrate ways to maintain confidentiality in day to day communication. 4. 3. Describe the potential tension between maintaining an individual’s confidentiality and disclosing concerns. Note: Please include when confidentiality should be breech to meet assessment objective 4. 3. This could include if a client discloses information to you that is putting themselves and others at risk, etc.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night Essay Example

Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night Essay Night is associated to darkness, emptiness, and sometimes-even loneliness. Robert Frost’s â€Å"Acquainted With the Night† shows the character, which is the narrator, being overly too familiar almost friendly with the nighttime. The narrator of the poem is a man who described what he felt as he took a walk at night seemingly searching for something he had apparently lost. This â€Å"modernist† character was disposing loneliness throughout the whole poem. He is a representative of the alienated person typical of modern literature because he tried to seek out what were causing his loneliness from his environment. Even though the narrator of the poem seemed as though he was friendly with the night, his relationship with it projects a sad and lonely mood. By saying, â€Å"I have been one acquainted with the night,† (1) the character is really expressing his true feelings of having been reminded of loneliness at nighttime. The character spoke about walking all by himself at night. By doing so, he described what he sees as well as what he heard at that time. It was as if he was searching for an answer to his loneliness as he walked up and down those streets, seeking for the answer that could possibly lighten his heart once again. By hearing â€Å"[A] †¦ far away †¦ interrupted cry, came over houses from another street, But not to call me back or say good-bye† (8-10), it was as if he was waiting for another person to come and help him alleviate the feeling of loneliness from his heart. We will write a custom essay sample on Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer These words that he expressed almost showed how his heart probably had skipped a beat as he heard the noise because it could have been what he was searching for at night. This man was a very sad and lonely person. He still pursued the night even though it reminds him nothing but loneliness. Perhaps he could be easing some of his feelings by searching an answer in the darkness and emptiness that nighttime has to offer. Its as if he was waiting to be reunited with something or someone that he had lost in the past. This character does represent many people in the real world. He along with other people are so deep into their emotions that they still follow a path where nothing but loneliness is reminded for them, pursuing it as if drowning themselves in those very emotions that they feel. Though some of these people in the real world may not be using the method as he does, its still the same path of seeking out an answer for their emotions.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Stunned, Astounded and Astonished

Stunned, Astounded and Astonished Stunned, Astounded and Astonished Stunned, Astounded and Astonished By Maeve Maddox stun: c.1300, to daze or render unconscious (from a blow, powerful emotion, etc.), probably aphetic of O.Fr. estoner to stun astound: 1600, from M.E. astouned, astoned (c.1300), pp. of astonien to stun astonish: 1340, astonien, from O.Fr. estoner to stun, from V.L. *extonare, from L. ex- out + tonare to thunder; so, lit. to leave someone thunderstruck. Although all three words derive from the same source, each has a different connotation in English. Stun seems to carry the strongest emotional punch, perhaps because it has only one syllable, but also because it has a literal meaning. The other two words are always used figuratively. (I’ve never seen the word â€Å"astonish† used to describe the effect of a literal lightning strike.) Astound and astonish suggest amazement, but the surprise engendered is not necessarily accompanied by the emotional pain suggested by the word stun. He was astounded by the bureaucrats stupidity. They were astonished by the magicians illusions. He was stunned by the unexpected death of his wife. The following headlines and captions from the web got me thinking about these words: Tendulkar stunned at his wax likeness Israel stunned at US firmness on freezing settlements Richard Dreyfuss Stunned at Natashas Accident Twilights Lefevre stunned at loss of role Crowds Stunned at Jacksons Death What first caught my attention was the use of the preposition â€Å"at† after stun instead of the usual â€Å"by.† The use of â€Å"at† instead of â€Å"by† has the effect of distancing the emotion. The metaphor is one of being hit over the head. One isn’t â€Å"stunned at a hammer,† but â€Å"stunned by a hammer.† One is stunned by bad news, not â€Å"at† it. My second observation was that in at least two of the headlines, either astounded or astonished would have been the more appropriate choice. As a general rule, I’d save the word stun for a truly tragic context and use astound and astonish to convey extreme surprise. As for the use of stunning in inappropriate contexts, here’s what David Auburn has to say in the Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus (p. 861): stunning is probably the most overused synonym for â€Å"very good,† especially in movie ads and book blurbs . . . Use of the word in this context has become not only an empty clichà ©, but also annoyingly counterintuitive: wouldn’t you be more likely to feel stunned by something bad than by something good? Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:How to Format a US Business LetterExpanded and ExtendedThrew and Through

Friday, November 22, 2019

The 26 Surprising Rules Of Great Content Creation

The 26 Surprising Rules Of Great Content Creation Great content creation is a lifestyle. You live and breath it; almost everything that happens to you makes you think this could be a blog post. Here are the rules. You probably already know them, because youre living them now. The Rules Of Great Content Creation 1. Live what you write. Believe in what youre writing, or it will show. You can talk it if you walk it. Otherwise, youre guessing out loud and your audience can tell. If you find yourself writing what you dont believe anymore, change what youre doing, rethink your beliefs–do something. Try to get the two as parallel as you can or youll start to feel resentment and have a hard time living with yourself. 2. Your critics and fans are the same. Be ready for both criticism and adoration from the same people, over the same content, and in the same day. Take one as well as the other. They go together like light and shadow. 3. Always be reading.  Read not just blogs and books that are related to marketing or blogging or your niche. Read outside your usual realm. Read fiction and non-fiction. Read history and philosophy. All things can apply to the content you are creating in some way some day. You wont regret your knowledge stockpile. Ever. 4. Dont write too much. Write every day. Write extra, because youll be editing and cutting. Write as the habit it should be. But dont write so much that youre burned out. When you feel burned out on writing, pick up a fiction book and read. Reset your mind in a different path. 5. Write with daring. The post I wrote last week was different. I sat down to write and thought in exasperation I cannot write yet another typical blog post. Not today. So I wrote something else. It might not appeal to readers. It might not be the top-post. It might garner laughs. I might wish later Id not written it. But I needed to write something that was different even if only so I could write fresh the next day. 6. Write so your readers enjoy it. You have a chance to brighten someones day, give them the change in direction they were hoping for, or change an attitude. Your goal isnt to write a great blog. Its to write a great day for your readers. Your goal isnt to impress someone else. Its to write so the person who reads it is glad that he or she did. 7. Think of yourself as a writer, not a content creator. One changes the world, the other packages up a product. There will be days when feeling comparable to a factory wont inspire you much at all. On those days, think of yourself as a writer. You have a great history of noble and great writers to be inspired by; less so with content creators. Think of yourself as a writer, not a content creator. Its a different mindset.8. Think of yourself as a content creator, and not a writer. Some days you have to ship, whether you have a grand philosophy to share that day or not. If need be, compartmentalize your creative self. Understand you have a job to do, that it might not feel noble right now, but youre gonna do it the best you can, and that it doesnt define who you are later. 9. Stretch yourself. Stretch how you write, the topics you write about, and be sure to stand up periodically and actually, physically stretch yourself at your desk so you dont fall asleep. Get the blood moving to your head. 10. Wander away from the pack. Try something that everyone else doesnt swear by. Ignore that great advice. They say short, you say long. They say now, you say tomorrow. It might not work, they might have been right, but at least you strengthened your writing backbone a bit and tested out your own feet. And, who knows. You might end up finding something new that becomes the next must-have advice. 11. Network, and be friendly. No one hugs a porcupine. Be friendly online. You dont have to be fake. If youre not feeling friendly when you read that blog post comment, come back when you do, and not a moment before. This is how you connect with people. 12. Promote your work before yourself. Its not about you, its about what youre writing and what people want. Remember this: unless youre a famous celebrity and people have oddly fixated on you, people really only care about themselves and what you can do for them. They care less about that new puppy you blogged about and more about the 5 Ways They Can Save $100 Each Week. Dont be a self-promoter. Be a work-promoter. People are interested in themselves. Let your work feed that. Promote your work before yourself. People want you for what you can do for13. Blame no one. You wrote a blog post that bombed, started a flame war, was grossly inaccurate, was hilariously bad, caused people to unsubscribe from your email list, or was pistol-whipped by search engines? Your fault. You wrote it. Not a big deal. Move on and keep writing. 14. Inquire after your readers. Ask questions, in your blog posts, in your comments, on social media. Actually ask with the desire to hear. This is not you throwing out a fishhook to snare the next sucker for your online webinar. This is you asking another person and letting them share their opinion. You will learn something. 15. See words in a new light. Words are not just a means to an end. They are capturing the electric thoughts in your brain so others can understand them. They are powerful and not merely governed by rules, not merely a rigid part of a formula. Expand your vocabulary. Experiment with the sound of the words as you read them in your head, the juxtaposition of words, the hidden meanings and puns that you can create based on how you use words. Dump your cliches and stand-by phrases. 16. Understand your blog is dangerous. Oh, is it ever. Its the printing press and the pen that defeated the sword and the freely spoken word, all rolled up into one and then some. Your blog can be powerful. Will you use it to harm, to help, or to simper and whine? Your blog can be powerful. Do you use it to harm, help, or complain?  #ContentMarketingRules17. You are the oven. As a blogger, you take all the raw materials–the studies, the blog posts, the articles, the books, the infographics–and you interpret them for your reader. You do the hard stuff so they can have ten or fifteen minutes of enjoyment reading. Dont be annoyed that this is what you will do. Be sure you know how to distill your knowledge down for this purpose. 18. Expect completely unpredictable returns. You will not understand why your least favorite or most ridiculous posts get the most traffic. You shouldnt chase after it. People will read what they will read. Dont restructure your blog around a topic purely based on numbers. One-hit wonders are found on every blog. They throw off the curve and thats how it is. 19. Tip your hat to search engines, then turn your back. Ultimately, you are not feeding a search engine. You are not here for a robot. You are here for human readers and you should never, ever let anything trump human readability and enjoyment no matter how much racket the robot makes. 20. Its all about who you know. You can work 10 years or 10 days and have the same success. It depends on who you know and who they know and if theyll share and tell. That may be discouraging. Whatever it is, it isnt a blank check for shoddy work. You do your best work over the days and the years. 21. One-time hits are great, but not that great. A one time hit is like a punch. It happens, it dissipates, you might have some collateral effects for a while, but you quickly settle back to the status quo. Your content shouldnt be created out of an infatuation with hit counts. Thats chasing after the wind. Even if you catch it, so what? One-hit wonders on your blog will happen. They dont define your blog.  #ContentMarketingRules22. Accept your title. Are you a professional blogger? A part-time blogger? A hobby blogger? It doesnt matter what you are, so long as you know. Thatll help you understand what tools youll use, for one thing, and how much sleep youll lose over things like leads and conversions and affiliate income. Know what kind of blogger you are, and proceed to write without shame. Theres room for everyone. 23. Be authentic, but know if youre a jerk. The word now is authenticity and trust and thats the best way to write but do you know if your authentic self is even likable? do you care? Does your audience care? Be authentic enough, but temper it with a kindness and patience for your audience. Youre not a hypocrite if you do that, nor is your writing fake. 24. You are writing in permanent marker. What you write online is forever. Even if you robots.txt your site so the Internet Archive cant access it, the things you write online do not come with an eraser two or three years down the road. Be friends with your draft button and think before you hit publish. 25. Find your own growth percentage. Im not talking about traffic or conversions. Im talking about what percentage of content will you write according to the winning formulas of the day, and what percentage will you write simply to grow your knowledge and skills whether they are a traffic win or not? There might be overlap, but there might just be a few posts here and there that no one cares about that still changed your own life. 26. The best way to learn to be a blogger is to be a blogger. To learn, you have to start. To get better, you have start when youre at your worst youll ever be. You can read all of the how to be a blogger posts you want, but until you start you wont understand. To be a blogger, you must be a blogger.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Economic Theory of Capitalism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Economic Theory of Capitalism - Essay Example It can be said that capitalism has had a huge impact on the sovereignty of the states, which have come to depend on it completely. It has, in fact, been said that it undermines state sovereignty because decisions that governments have to make have to put into consideration their impact on international affairs (Anderson 85). An example of this is oil-exporting countries, which heavily depend on the income from this product to fund their national budgets. Moreover, if these countries were to act in a way that displeases the international community, then they would be forced to abandon such decisions through the placing of sanctions on their exports by those countries, which import their oil (Hobson 64). Moreover, because of capitalism, many countries have economic interests in other countries. To protect these interests, it has become necessary for the power to meddle in the political affairs of the weaker ones. This has not only made the latter countries lose their sovereignty, but i t has also encouraged their overdependence on more developed nations for economic aid. In many countries, it has been found that economic power is disproportionately balanced so that a few hold most of the wealth while the rest only hold very little or none at all (Lenin 18). This has created a situation where individuals own the majority of the resources in the society and this has made the gap between the rich and the poor to widen. The rich become richer while the poor have continued to become poorer as the cost of living increases while their income has remained the same. The economic policies of many countries tend to be left in the hands of politicians, who make decisions about things or places they are unacquainted with, lack of adequate information about the framework to design effective and correct policies and programs to facilitate the development of their people. This has led many nations to pursue policies that are detrimental to the equal development of all their citiz ens, as they have tended to secure the status quo; namely, the rich being favored at the expense of the poor, who make up the majority of many societies the world over (Schumpeter 105). The potential for social chaos because of this, as propagated by Marx, is quite possible especially when one considers that the trickle effect policies propagated by capitalists do not seem to work. It is a fact that economic inequality is a reality among the majority of the world’s population and this has come about mainly because of the fact that capitalist policies have become dominant. Despite this situation being rampant the world over, most of the people with the power to make a difference are either unwilling or unable to do so because they do not want to disturb the status quo as it is.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Identity theft Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Identity theft - Essay Example Identity theft has become an increasing problem globally in recent years, causing millions of people undue emotional and financial trauma, while costing society a great deal of money. The heartache caused has limited access to critical services and credit availability for millions of honest and hardworking citizens globally, but particularly in the United States. It is a serious issues that must be tackled. The aim of the short paper is to introduce the seriousness of this problem and to present possibly research questions that should be explored to better introduce society to various methods to limit the risk of becoming a victim of identity theft. Problem Statement The problem is that identity theft is destroying the financial security and freedom of countless individuals world wide. As honest, hardworking people have their identities stolen, they are subject to a loss of credit, difficulty in terms of employment, and encounters problems of various sorts with law authorities. Such victims must prove that their identity was stolen, often causing a great deal of anguish in the process. Local and national governments are currently taking measures to prevent identity theft, but the problem seems to be growing. There are five major types of identity theft being practiced today: 1) Criminal identity theft, 2) Financial identity theft, 3) Identity cloning, 4) Medical identity theft, and 5) Child identity theft. This proposed research study will examine each of these areas to help the reader understand the warning signs and avoid becoming a victim of such types of identity theft. In short, identity cloning involves one person taking on (stealing) the identity of another for the express purpose of hiding their own identity for one reason or the other. This is a bit different than other forms of identity theft, as financial information is not typically involved, causing the stolen identity to often go undetected for a long time (Anderson, Durbin, & Salinger, 2008, p. 1 71) . Criminal identity theft involves one person committing a criminal act, getting arrested, and then telling law enforcement officials that they are a different person (Harrison, 2007, p. 84). Conversely, synthetic identity theft refers to identities that are almost entirely made up. Most commonly this occurs by using a real social security number, but a different name or date of birth to make it more difficult to track (Ciechanowicz, 2010, p. 41). Medical identity theft involves one person seeking out medical care, not in their name, but in the name of another person. There are many reason why an individual might perpetrate this type of crime, including a lack of insurance on the part of the person (Agrawal & Budetti, 2012, p. 459). Finally, child identity theft involves just what its name implies. The criminal here commonly steals the social security number of a child, and then opens line of credit and commits other unlawful behavior using the stolen identity. This crime is par ticularly difficult to detect because children typically do not realize their identity has been stolen until well into adulthood (Dwan, 2004, p. 16). Relevance and Significance As demonstrated to this point, identity theft is a serious issue that must be tackled. It affects nearly everyone in society, either directly or indirectly. Even if a person is not a victim themselves, they pay the price in other ways. An individual who has fallen victim to any of the major types of

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Emergency Response to a dirty bomb incident Essay Example for Free

Emergency Response to a dirty bomb incident Essay Terrorist activities and world wars that were experienced released radioactive elements to the environment which have lead to the raise of low level nuclear materials due to exposure to the neutron radiation. Also activities carried out in hospitals and universities in an attempt of doing scientific research to come up with solutions to perplexing issues play a part in the release of low level waste materials that contain nuclear radiations. The radioactivity of the materials can be minimal or high depending on the period of time taken by the materials to absorb neutron radiations. Various National Regulatory Commission (NRC) policies and regulations have been formulated to guide towards the safe disposal of these materials that will not result in the overall deterioration of the environment or portray harm to the environment and its environs. The less radioactive low level nuclear waste is left to decay away and later disposed off as ordinary trash or collected in a heap to enable its shipment to sites approved by the guidelines underlying in the stipulated NRC policies and regulations (Berkhout, 2002). Terrorists or nations engaged in wars use dirty bombs to cause psychological stress, mass panic and terror to the other war counterpart as the bombs do not cause mass destruction. However, the use of dirty bombs introduces fissile materials to the environment which undergo nuclear reactions as time passes to produce fission products which are dangerous because they contain nuclear electrons. These products pose danger to the nature of the environment as major components are affected such as air, soil and ozone among others greatly affecting the normal functions carried out by the physical attributes and habitats of the environment. The health of human beings is also placed at a danger as fetal diseases and symptoms crop up leading to their death such as severe vomiting and swelling of human body parts. Also the economy of a country is affected placing the nation in an economic crisis that requires emergency strategies to pull back the nosedived economy so as to protect the country from economic collapse. Therefore, though the use of dirty bombs leads to the introduction of low level nuclear materials to the environment the after effects caused may be lethal thus the demand for extra care in the disposal and treatment mechanisms (Berkhout, 2002). The vengeance carried out by the Al Qaeda terrorists has lead to the adverse deterioration of the economic status of Hillsdale metropolitan due to the presence of radioactive materials which are affecting the development of the city. Some key areas in the city that are potential business sites have even been restricted from human activity due to the potential danger they portray to the humans. Research information collected by scientists and scholars show that human activities may activate the radioactivity of the waste materials evident in the city causing more harm to the residents residing in the safer regions of the city and in neighboring towns. Therefore strategies that will foresee the overall management of disposal and decontamination of the low level nuclear materials and the equipments used to collect and clean the materials should be formulated (Lynn et al. , 2003). To be able to help the metropolitan respond effectively to emergency cases that result from radiological dispersal devices there should be establishment of regular training facilities, sessions and exercises that educate and prepare emergency response staff members to be able to handle any incidents that will require the decontamination of the low level nuclear materials that exhibits danger to the environment and its inhabitants. These programs will help to educate the staff members and the communities at large on the dangers portrayed by the radioactive materials and understand the potential measures that should be followed to curb the danger. Also the necessary resources that are required to decontaminate the radioactive materials are availed during the training exercises and the appropriate method of handling the devices instilled into the emergency rescue staff members (Lynn et al. , 2003). The NRC should ensure thorough radiological assessment especially to the prohibited zones are conducted to enable collection of data that will help decide on which methods to use to decontaminate the low level nuclear materials liaising with the federal department for more information on the steps to take, for example deionizing activities that will stop the reactivity ability of the nuclear neutrons from forming fusion products that are a danger to the Hillsdale community and economy. Other methods include collection of the radio active materials into decontamination containers where they are heaped to decrease their decaying time (Bolz, Dudonis Schulz, 2005). Campaigns that will create awareness to the public on the essential measures to undertake and the dangers the radioactive materials portray to them should be organized. To enable the success of these campaigns the department should work hand in hand with the ecology department and the environmental protection agencies to stipulate strategies that the public should emanate in case of potential dangers exhibited by the radioactive materials. For example when incidents of explosions occur the public should quickly evacuate from the affected areas and run in directions that are free from the radioactive fallouts released by the explosion to prevent inhalation. They should also remove everything they had worn in the occurrence of the incidents safely disposing them and bath within the shortest time interval. The public should also not return to shelters or use properties that may have harbored the fallout particles for some hours (Lynn et al. , 2003). The transport behavior of the radionuclide elements or fallouts should be thoroughly researched to help in the implementation of geochemical and microbial characteristics to be imposed on the transport behavior of the fallouts. The contaminated properties and clean up materials undergo vitrification process in an attempt to purify them where they are de-nitrated to increase the stability of the fission product formed. Facilities that will enable ion exchange and synroc activities of decontaminating and disposing off the radioactive elements should be employed. Long term solutions that will enable disposal of the low level nuclear materials, clean up equipments and contaminated properties should be devised. For instance shafts that are approximately 500-1000 meters below the ground surface should be drilled to enable safe disposal of the radioactive nucleis. The decaying process that will follow will decrease the harm caused by the reactivity of these fallouts (Berkhout, 2002). The increased terrorist attacks will require the US government to formulate policies that will improve the overall process of decontaminating and disposing off low level nuclear materials that affect the social welfare and economic status of the nation. This will enable appropriate decisive and expert actions to be carried out within 48 hours of launch of dirty bombs, to effectively curb the dangers portrayed by the explosions that follow. Therefore the vulnerability of nations or cities for example Hillsdale from the consequences caused by use of dirty bombs will reduce creating a safe haven to the environment and its inhibitors. Reference List Berkhout, F. , (2002). Radioactive Waste: Politics and Technology. NY: Routledge. Bolz, F. , Dudonis, J. K. Schulz, P. D. , (2005). The Counter terrorism Handbook: Tactics, Procedures and Techniques. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Lynn, E. D. , LaTourrette, T. Public Safety and Justice Program (Rand Corporation), (2003). Individual Preparedness and Response to Chemical, Radiological, Nuclear, and Biological Terrorist Attacks: Chemical, Radiological, Nuclear, and Biological Attacks. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation Press.